Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, chronic myeloid leukemia) is the third most common onco hematological disease. Until a few decades ago, the disease was difficult to treat, but today’s medications allow patients to live much longer, while maintaining its quality of life. Myeloid Leukosis develops most frequently in adults, with about 90% of cases being detected precisely in its chronic form. It is diagnosed more often in men. Exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor increasing the risk of the disease. Chronic myeloid leukemia belongs to the group of myeloproliferative diseases. In this article, we will look at Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia: Emerging Therapies.

The disease develops because of an accidental chromosomal breakdown that occurs in a stem cell. Stem cells are capable of differentiating into different types of cells that perform their functions in the body, including blood cells. The breakage is called the “Philadelphia” chromosome. Cells with a broken chromosome produce an oncoprotein, tyrosine kinase, which has increased activity and disrupts normal bone marrow cells. The number of “young” forms of leukocytes increases, which gradually multiply and fill the bone marrow, and then go out into the peripheral blood, penetrating into the liver and spleen. 

Treatment

Modern clinics are guided by the recommendations of international medical protocols (NCCN, AHA, EHA, ESMO). The aim of treatment is to reduce the number of atypical cells in the blood and bone marrow as much as possible. In this case it is possible to achieve long-term remission. A consilium of specialists determines the treatment strategy for each patient. This makes it possible to take into account all the nuances of the disease and prescribe the most effective treatment, taking into account the patient’s age, general health and the phase of the disease.

The main drugs used to treat CML are tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Patients who come to the clinic can be treated with the latest generation of this group of drugs. If a regional crisis develops, treatment follows the acute leukemia treatment regimen. Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia allows patients to achieve prolonged remission and return to normal life after treatment. At all stages of treatment, hospital specialists monitor the patient’s state of health and, if necessary, change the treatment regimen and prescribe accompanying therapy.