Psychometry (psychometric methods) is the study of quantitative aspects, relationships, characteristics of mental processes and phenomena. The most important feature of psychometrics is the standardization of techniques, which are used to measure the parameters of the dynamics of individual differences, the empirical limits of a given mental process. Psychometrics is aimed at creating psychodiagnostic techniques with validity, reliability and representativeness. Psychometric methods include psychological testing. We have prepared a review of psychometric studies.
Testing in psychometrics
Testing is a method of psychological diagnosis that uses standardized questions and tasks (tests) that have a defined scale of values. Testing is used in education to determine the intellectual and special abilities, level of development of psycho-physiological features and personal qualities, in selecting and determining the professional aptitude of applicants, as well as in the process of certification and professional counseling.
Tests are divided into two main types:
- achievement tests.
There are three stages in testing:
- selection of a test, questionnaire (depends on the research task);
- conducting the test in accordance with the instructions, while respecting ethical standards;
- processing the data received and interpretation of test results.
Psychological tests are classified on various grounds. According to the subject of diagnosis, there are tests of: intellect, abilities, personality and socio-psychological, and according to the method of implementation – manipulative, “pencil and paper,” instrumental, situational-behavioral, and computer-based. Analytical tests and test batteries, individual and group tests are differentiated. According to the purpose of application, there are tests of readiness for school, clinical tests, tests of vocational selection, etc. According to psychometric grounds, tests are divided into those based on scales of individual differences, and on criterion-oriented tests.
Intelligence tests – diagnostic techniques designed to determine the level of intellectual development of an individual and to reveal features of the structure of his or her intelligence.
Ability tests – methods that diagnose the level of development of general and special abilities that determine the success of learning, professional activity and creativity. Widely spread are tests of intellect and creativity, which are used to find out the general giftedness of a person. There are numerous tests of special abilities: sports, musical, artistic, mathematical, etc.
Achievement tests are tests designed to measure the quality of educational or professional knowledge, skills and abilities. Achievement tests are designed taking into account the content of educational or professional tasks for certain conditions and testing purposes (selection, certification, examination, etc.). Achievement tests are widely used in the selection for higher education institutions.